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Thursday, September 9, 2010

A BEGINNERS GUIDE TO H A C K I N G

************************************** * A BEGINNERS GUIDE TO: * *
H A C K I N G * * * *
U N I X * * * * * * (NOTE: THIS IS WRITTEN IN 40 COL.) * * WRITTEN * ************************************** IN THE FOLLOWING FILE, ALL REFERENCES MADE TO THE NAME UNIX, MAY ALSO BE SUBSTITUTED TO THE XENIX OPERATING SYSTEM. BRIEF HISTORY: BACK IN THE EARLY SIXTIES, DURING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THIRD GENERATION COMPUTERS AT MIT, A GROUP OF PROGRAMMERS STUDYING THE POTENTIAL OF COMPUTERS, DISCOVERED THEIR ABILITY OF PERFORMING TWO OR MORE TASKS SIMULTANEOUSLY. BELL LABS, TAKING NOTICE OF THIS DISCOVERY, PROVIDED FUNDS FOR THEIR DEVELOPMENTAL SCIENTISTS TO INVESTIGATE INTO THIS NEW FRONTIER. AFTER ABOUT 2 YEARS OF DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH, THEY PRODUCED AN OPERATING SYSTEM THEY CANLMD "UNIX". SIXTIES TO CURRENT: DURING THIS TIME BELL SYSTEMS INSTALLED THE UNIX SYSTEM TO PROVIDE THEIR COMPUTER OPERATORS WITH THE ABILITY TO MULTITASK SO THAT THEY COULD BECOME MORE PRODUCTIVE, AND EFFICIENT. ONE OF THE SYSTEMS THEY PUT ON THE UNIX SYSTEM WAS CALLED "ELMOS". THROUGH ELMOS MANY TASKS (I.E. BILLING,AND INSTALLATION RECORDS) COULD BE DONE BY MANY PEOPLE USING THE SAME MAINFRAME. NOTE: COSMOS IS ACCESSED THROUGH THE ELMOS SYSTEM. CURRENT: TODAY, WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF MICRO COMPUTERS, SUCH MULTITASKING CAN BE ACHIEVED BY A SCALED DOWN VERSION OF UNIX (BUT JUST AS POWERFUL). MICROSOFT,SEEING THIS DEVELOPMENT, OPTED TO DEVELOP THEIR OWN UNIX LIKE SYSTEM FOR THE IBM LINE OF PC/XT'S. THEIR RESULT THEY CALLED XENIX (PRONOUNCED ZEE-NICKS). BOTH UNIX AND XENIX CAN BE EASILY INSTALLED
ON IBM PC'S AND OFFER THE SAME FUNCTION
(JUST 2 DIFFERENT VENDORS).

NOTE: DUE TO THE MANY DIFFERENT
VERSIONS OF UNIX (BERKLEY UNIX,
BELL SYSTEM III, AND SYSTEM V
THE MOST POPULAR) MANY COMMANDS
FOLLOWING MAY/MAY NOT WORK. I HAVE
WRITTEN THEM IN SYSTEM V ROUTINES.
UNIX/XENIX OPERATING SYSTEMS WILL
BE CONSIDERED IDENTICAL SYSTEMS BELOW.

HOW TO TELL IF/IF NOT YOU ARE ON A
UNIX SYSTEM: UNIX SYSTEMS ARE QUITE
COMMON SYSTEMS ACROSS THE COUNTRY.
THEIR SECURITY APPEARS AS SUCH:

LOGIN; (OR LOGIN;)
PASSWORD:

WHEN HACKING ON A UNIX SYSTEM IT IS
BEST TO USE LOWERCASE BECAUSE THE UNIX
SYSTEM COMMANDS ARE ALL DONE IN LOWER-
CASE.
LOGIN; IS A 1-8 CHARACTER FIELD. IT IS
USUALLY THE NAME (I.E. JOE OR FRED)
OF THE USER, OR INITIALS (I.E. J.JONES
OR F.WILSON). HINTS FOR LOGIN NAMES
CAN BE FOUND TRASHING THE LOCATION OF
THE DIAL-UP (USE YOUR CN/A TO FIND
WHERE THE COMPUTER IS).
PASSWORD: IS A 1-8 CHARACTER PASSWORD
ASSIGNED BY THE SYSOP OR CHOSEN BY THE
USER.
COMMON DEFAULT LOGINS
--------------------------
LOGIN; PASSWORD:
ROOT ROOT,SYSTEM,ETC..
SYS SYS,SYSTEM
DAEMON DAEMON
UUCP UUCP
TTY TTY
TEST TEST
UNIX UNIX
BIN BIN
ADM ADM
WHO WHO
LEARN LEARN
UUHOST UUHOST
NUUCP NUUCP

IF YOU GUESS A LGIN NAME AND YOU ARE
NOT ASKED FOR A PASSWORD, AND HAVE
ACCESSED TO THE SYSTEM, THEN YOU HAVE
WHAT IS KNOWN AS A NON-GIFTED ACCOUNT.
IF YOU GUESS A CORRECT LOGIN AND PASS-
WORD, THEN YOU HAVE A USER ACCOUNT.
AND, IF YOU GUESS THE ROOT PASSWORD,
THEN YOU HAVE A "SUPER-USER" ACCOUNT.
ALL UNIX SYSTEMS HAVE THE FOLLOWING
INSTALLED TO THEIR SYSTEM:
ROOT, SYS, BIN, DAEMON, UUCP, ADM
ONCE YOU ARE IN THE SYSTEM, YOU WILL
GET A PROMPT. COMMON PROMPTS ARE:

$
%
#

BUT CAN BE JUST ABOUT ANYTHING THE
SYSOP OR USER WANTS IT TO BE.

THINGS TO DO WHEN YOU ARE IN: SOME
OF THE COMMANDS THAT YOU MAY WANT TO
TRY FOLLOW BELOW:

WHO IS ON (SHOWS WHO IS CURRENTLY
LOGGED ON THE SYSTEM.)
WRITE NAME (NAME IS THE PERSON YOU
WISH TO CHAT WITH)
TO EXIT CHAT MODE TRY CTRL-D.
EOT=END OF TRANSFER.
LS -A (LIST ALL FILES IN CURRENT
DIRECTORY.)
DU -A (CHECKS AMOUNT OF MEMORY
YOUR FILES USE;DISK USAGE)
CD\NAME (NAME IS THE NAME OF THE
SUB-DIRECTORY YOU CHOOSE)
CD\ (BRINGS YOUR HOME DIRECTORY
TO CURRENT USE)
CAT NAME (NAME IS A FILENAME EITHER
A PROGRAM OR DOCUMENTATION
YOUR USERNAME HAS WRITTEN)
MOST UNIX PROGRAMS ARE WRITTEN
IN THE C LANGUAGE OR PASCAL
SINCE UNIX IS A PROGRAMMERS'
ENVIRONMENT.
ONE OF THE FIRST THINGS DONE ON THE
SYSTEM IS PRINT UP OR CAPTURE (IN A
BUFFER) THE FILE CONTAINING ALL USER
NAMES AND ACCOUNTS. THIS CAN BE DONE
BY DOING THE FOLLOWING COMMAND:

CAT /ETC/PASSWD

IF YOU ARE SUCCESSFUL YOU WILL A LIST
OF ALL ACCOUNTS ON THE SYSTEM. IT
SHOULD LOOK LIKE THIS:

ROOT:HVNSDCF:0:0:ROOT DIR:/:
JOE:MAJDNFD:1:1:JOE COOL:/BIN:/BIN/JOE
HAL::1:2:HAL SMITH:/BIN:/BIN/HAL

THE "ROOT" LINE TELLS THE FOLLOWING
INFO :
LOGIN NAME=ROOT
HVNSDCF = ENCRYPTED PASSWORD
0 = USER GROUP NUMBER
0 = USER NUMBER
ROOT DIR = NAME OF USER
/ = ROOT DIRECTORY

IN THE JOE LOGIN, THE LAST PART
"/BIN/JOE " TELLS US WHICH DIRECTORY
IS HIS HOME DIRECTORY (JOE) IS.

IN THE "HAL" EXAMPLE THE LOGIN NAME IS
FOLLOWED BY 2 COLONS, THAT MEANS THAT
THERE IS NO PASSWORD NEEDED TO GET IN
USING HIS NAME.

CONCLUSION: I HOPE THAT THIS FILE
WILL HELP OTHER NOVICE UNIX HACKERS
OBTAIN ACCESS TO THE UNIX/XENIX
SYSTEMS THAT THEY MAY FIND. THERE IS
STILL WIDE GROWTH IN THE FUTURE OF
UNIX, SO I HOPE USERS WILL NOT ABUSE
ANY SYSTEMS (UNIX OR ANY OTHERS) THAT
THEY MAY HAPPEN ACROSS ON THEIR
JOURNEY ACROSS THE ELECTRONIC HIGHWAYS OF AMERICA. THERE IS MUCH MORE TO BE LEARNED ABOUT THE UNIX SYSTEM THAT I HAVE NOT COVERED. THEY MAY BE FOUND BY BUYING A BOOK ON THE UNIX SYSTEM (HOW I LEARNED) OR IN THE FUTURE I MAY WRITE A PART II TO THIS........ Downloaded from P-80 Systems......

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20 Great Google Secrets

20 Great Google Secrets



http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,4149,1306756,00.asp

excl.gif No Active Links, Read the Rules - Edit by Ninja excl.gif



Google is clearly the best general-purpose search engine on the Web (see

www.pcmag.com/searchengines

But most people don't use it to its best advantage. Do you just plug in a keyword or two and hope for the best? That may be the quickest way to search, but with more than 3 billion pages in Google's index, it's still a struggle to pare results to a manageable number.

But Google is an remarkably powerful tool that can ease and enhance your Internet exploration. Google's search options go beyond simple keywords, the Web, and even its own programmers. Let's look at some of Google's lesser-known options.

Syntax Search Tricks

Using a special syntax is a way to tell Google that you want to restrict your searches to certain elements or characteristics of Web pages. Google has a fairly complete list of its syntax elements at

www.google.com/help/operators.html

. Here are some advanced operators that can help narrow down your search results.

Intitle: at the beginning of a query word or phrase (intitle:"Three Blind Mice") restricts your search results to just the titles of Web pages.

Intext: does the opposite of intitle:, searching only the body text, ignoring titles, links, and so forth. Intext: is perfect when what you're searching for might commonly appear in URLs. If you're looking for the term HTML, for example, and you don't want to get results such as

www.mysite.com/index.html

, you can enter intext:html.

Link: lets you see which pages are linking to your Web page or to another page you're interested in. For example, try typing in

link:http://www.pcmag.com


Try using site: (which restricts results to top-level domains) with intitle: to find certain types of pages. For example, get scholarly pages about Mark Twain by searching for intitle:"Mark Twain"site:edu. Experiment with mixing various elements; you'll develop several strategies for finding the stuff you want more effectively. The site: command is very helpful as an alternative to the mediocre search engines built into many sites.

Swiss Army Google

Google has a number of services that can help you accomplish tasks you may never have thought to use Google for. For example, the new calculator feature

(www.google.com/help/features.html#calculator)

lets you do both math and a variety of conversions from the search box. For extra fun, try the query "Answer to life the universe and everything."

Let Google help you figure out whether you've got the right spelling—and the right word—for your search. Enter a misspelled word or phrase into the query box (try "thre blund mise") and Google may suggest a proper spelling. This doesn't always succeed; it works best when the word you're searching for can be found in a dictionary. Once you search for a properly spelled word, look at the results page, which repeats your query. (If you're searching for "three blind mice," underneath the search window will appear a statement such as Searched the web for "three blind mice.") You'll discover that you can click on each word in your search phrase and get a definition from a dictionary.

Suppose you want to contact someone and don't have his phone number handy. Google can help you with that, too. Just enter a name, city, and state. (The city is optional, but you must enter a state.) If a phone number matches the listing, you'll see it at the top of the search results along with a map link to the address. If you'd rather restrict your results, use rphonebook: for residential listings or bphonebook: for business listings. If you'd rather use a search form for business phone listings, try Yellow Search

(www.buzztoolbox.com/google/yellowsearch.shtml).




Extended Googling

Google offers several services that give you a head start in focusing your search. Google Groups

(http://groups.google.com)

indexes literally millions of messages from decades of discussion on Usenet. Google even helps you with your shopping via two tools: Froogle
CODE
(http://froogle.google.com),

which indexes products from online stores, and Google Catalogs
CODE
(http://catalogs.google.com),

which features products from more 6,000 paper catalogs in a searchable index. And this only scratches the surface. You can get a complete list of Google's tools and services at

www.google.com/options/index.html

You're probably used to using Google in your browser. But have you ever thought of using Google outside your browser?

Google Alert

(www.googlealert.com)

monitors your search terms and e-mails you information about new additions to Google's Web index. (Google Alert is not affiliated with Google; it uses Google's Web services API to perform its searches.) If you're more interested in news stories than general Web content, check out the beta version of Google News Alerts

(www.google.com/newsalerts).

This service (which is affiliated with Google) will monitor up to 50 news queries per e-mail address and send you information about news stories that match your query. (Hint: Use the intitle: and source: syntax elements with Google News to limit the number of alerts you get.)

Google on the telephone? Yup. This service is brought to you by the folks at Google Labs

(http://labs.google.com),

a place for experimental Google ideas and features (which may come and go, so what's there at this writing might not be there when you decide to check it out). With Google Voice Search

(http://labs1.google.com/gvs.html),

you dial the Voice Search phone number, speak your keywords, and then click on the indicated link. Every time you say a new search term, the results page will refresh with your new query (you must have JavaScript enabled for this to work). Remember, this service is still in an experimental phase, so don't expect 100 percent success.

In 2002, Google released the Google API (application programming interface), a way for programmers to access Google's search engine results without violating the Google Terms of Service. A lot of people have created useful (and occasionally not-so-useful but interesting) applications not available from Google itself, such as Google Alert. For many applications, you'll need an API key, which is available free from
CODE
www.google.com/apis

. See the figures for two more examples, and visit

www.pcmag.com/solutions

for more.

Thanks to its many different search properties, Google goes far beyond a regular search engine. Give the tricks in this article a try. You'll be amazed at how many different ways Google can improve your Internet searching.


Online Extra: More Google Tips


Here are a few more clever ways to tweak your Google searches.

Search Within a Timeframe

Daterange: (start date–end date). You can restrict your searches to pages that were indexed within a certain time period. Daterange: searches by when Google indexed a page, not when the page itself was created. This operator can help you ensure that results will have fresh content (by using recent dates), or you can use it to avoid a topic's current-news blizzard and concentrate only on older results. Daterange: is actually more useful if you go elsewhere to take advantage of it, because daterange: requires Julian dates, not standard Gregorian dates. You can find converters on the Web (such as

CODE
http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/JulianDate.html

excl.gif No Active Links, Read the Rules - Edit by Ninja excl.gif


), but an easier way is to do a Google daterange: search by filling in a form at

www.researchbuzz.com/toolbox/goofresh.shtml or www.faganfinder.com/engines/google.shtml

. If one special syntax element is good, two must be better, right? Sometimes. Though some operators can't be mixed (you can't use the link: operator with anything else) many can be, quickly narrowing your results to a less overwhelming number.

More Google API Applications

Staggernation.com offers three tools based on the Google API. The Google API Web Search by Host (GAWSH) lists the Web hosts of the results for a given query

(www.staggernation.com/gawsh/).

When you click on the triangle next to each host, you get a list of results for that host. The Google API Relation Browsing Outliner (GARBO) is a little more complicated: You enter a URL and choose whether you want pages that related to the URL or linked to the URL

(www.staggernation.com/garbo/).

Click on the triangle next to an URL to get a list of pages linked or related to that particular URL. CapeMail is an e-mail search application that allows you to send an e-mail to google@capeclear.com with the text of your query in the subject line and get the first ten results for that query back. Maybe it's not something you'd do every day, but if your cell phone does e-mail and doesn't do Web browsing, this is a very handy address to know.

10 reasons why PCs crash U must Know

10 reasons why PCs crash U must Know

Fatal error: the system has become unstable or is busy," it says. "Enter to return to Windows or press Control-Alt-Delete to restart your computer. If you do this you will lose any unsaved information in all open applications."

You have just been struck by the Blue Screen of Death. Anyone who uses Mcft Windows will be familiar with this. What can you do? More importantly, how can you prevent it happening?

1 Hardware conflict

The number one reason why Windows crashes is hardware conflict. Each hardware device communicates to other devices through an interrupt request channel (IRQ). These are supposed to be unique for each device.

For example, a printer usually connects internally on IRQ 7. The keyboard usually uses IRQ 1 and the floppy disk drive IRQ 6. Each device will try to hog a single IRQ for itself.

If there are a lot of devices, or if they are not installed properly, two of them may end up sharing the same IRQ number. When the user tries to use both devices at the same time, a crash can happen. The way to check if your computer has a hardware conflict is through the following route:

* Start-Settings-Control Panel-System-Device Manager.

Often if a device has a problem a yellow '!' appears next to its description in the Device Manager. Highlight Computer (in the Device Manager) and press Properties to see the IRQ numbers used by your computer. If the IRQ number appears twice, two devices may be using it.

Sometimes a device might share an IRQ with something described as 'IRQ holder for PCI steering'. This can be ignored. The best way to fix this problem is to remove the problem device and reinstall it.

Sometimes you may have to find more recent drivers on the internet to make the device function properly. A good resource is www.driverguide.com. If the device is a soundcard, or a modem, it can often be fixed by moving it to a different slot on the motherboard (be careful about opening your computer, as you may void the warranty).

When working inside a computer you should switch it off, unplug the mains lead and touch an unpainted metal surface to discharge any static electricity.

To be fair to Mcft, the problem with IRQ numbers is not of its making. It is a legacy problem going back to the first PC designs using the IBM 8086 chip. Initially there were only eight IRQs. Today there are 16 IRQs in a PC. It is easy to run out of them. There are plans to increase the number of IRQs in future designs.

2 Bad Ram

Ram (random-access memory) problems might bring on the blue screen of death with a message saying Fatal Exception Error. A fatal error indicates a serious hardware problem. Sometimes it may mean a part is damaged and will need replacing.

But a fatal error caused by Ram might be caused by a mismatch of chips. For example, mixing 70-nanosecond (70ns) Ram with 60ns Ram will usually force the computer to run all the Ram at the slower speed. This will often crash the machine if the Ram is overworked.

One way around this problem is to enter the BIOS settings and increase the wait state of the Ram. This can make it more stable. Another way to troubleshoot a suspected Ram problem is to rearrange the Ram chips on the motherboard, or take some of them out. Then try to repeat the circumstances that caused the crash. When handling Ram try not to touch the gold connections, as they can be easily damaged.

Parity error messages also refer to Ram. Modern Ram chips are either parity (ECC) or non parity (non-ECC). It is best not to mix the two types, as this can be a cause of trouble.

EMM386 error messages refer to memory problems but may not be connected to bad Ram. This may be due to free memory problems often linked to old Dos-based programmes.

3 BIOS settings

Every motherboard is supplied with a range of chipset settings that are decided in the factory. A common way to access these settings is to press the F2 or delete button during the first few seconds of a boot-up.

Once inside the BIOS, great care should be taken. It is a good idea to write down on a piece of paper all the settings that appear on the screen. That way, if you change something and the computer becomes more unstable, you will know what settings to revert to.

A common BIOS error concerns the CAS latency. This refers to the Ram. Older EDO (extended data out) Ram has a CAS latency of 3. Newer SDRam has a CAS latency of 2. Setting the wrong figure can cause the Ram to lock up and freeze the computer's display.

Mcft Windows is better at allocating IRQ numbers than any BIOS. If possible set the IRQ numbers to Auto in the BIOS. This will allow Windows to allocate the IRQ numbers (make sure the BIOS setting for Plug and Play OS is switched to 'yes' to allow Windows to do this.).

4 Hard disk drives

After a few weeks, the information on a hard disk drive starts to become piecemeal or fragmented. It is a good idea to defragment the hard disk every week or so, to prevent the disk from causing a screen freeze. Go to

* Start-Programs-Accessories-System Tools-Disk Defragmenter

This will start the procedure. You will be unable to write data to the hard drive (to save it) while the disk is defragmenting, so it is a good idea to schedule the procedure for a period of inactivity using the Task Scheduler.

The Task Scheduler should be one of the small icons on the bottom right of the Windows opening page (the desktop).

Some lockups and screen freezes caused by hard disk problems can be solved by reducing the read-ahead optimisation. This can be adjusted by going to

* Start-Settings-Control Panel-System Icon-Performance-File System-Hard Disk.

Hard disks will slow down and crash if they are too full. Do some housekeeping on your hard drive every few months and free some space on it. Open the Windows folder on the C drive and find the Temporary Internet Files folder. Deleting the contents (not the folder) can free a lot of space.

Empty the Recycle Bin every week to free more space. Hard disk drives should be scanned every week for errors or bad sectors. Go to

* Start-Programs-Accessories-System Tools-ScanDisk

Otherwise assign the Task Scheduler to perform this operation at night when the computer is not in use.

5 Fatal OE exceptions and VXD errors

Fatal OE exception errors and VXD errors are often caused by video card problems.

These can often be resolved easily by reducing the resolution of the video display. Go to

* Start-Settings-Control Panel-Display-Settings

Here you should slide the screen area bar to the left. Take a look at the colour settings on the left of that window. For most desktops, high colour 16-bit depth is adequate.

If the screen freezes or you experience system lockups it might be due to the video card. Make sure it does not have a hardware conflict. Go to

* Start-Settings-Control Panel-System-Device Manager

Here, select the + beside Display Adapter. A line of text describing your video card should appear. Select it (make it blue) and press properties. Then select Resources and select each line in the window. Look for a message that says No Conflicts.

If you have video card hardware conflict, you will see it here. Be careful at this point and make a note of everything you do in case you make things worse.

The way to resolve a hardware conflict is to uncheck the Use Automatic Settings box and hit the Change Settings button. You are searching for a setting that will display a No Conflicts message.

Another useful way to resolve video problems is to go to

* Start-Settings-Control Panel-System-Performance-Graphics

Here you should move the Hardware Acceleration slider to the left. As ever, the most common cause of problems relating to graphics cards is old or faulty drivers (a driver is a small piece of software used by a computer to communicate with a device).

Look up your video card's manufacturer on the internet and search for the most recent drivers for it.

6 Viruses

Often the first sign of a virus infection is instability. Some viruses erase the boot sector of a hard drive, making it impossible to start. This is why it is a good idea to create a Windows start-up disk. Go to

* Start-Settings-Control Panel-Add/Remove Programs

Here, look for the Start Up Disk tab. Virus protection requires constant vigilance.

A virus scanner requires a list of virus signatures in order to be able to identify viruses. These signatures are stored in a DAT file. DAT files should be updated weekly from the website of your antivirus software manufacturer.

An excellent antivirus programme is McAfee VirusScan by Network Associates ( www.nai.com). Another is Norton AntiVirus 2000, made by Symantec ( www.symantec.com).

7 Printers

The action of sending a document to print creates a bigger file, often called a postscript file.

Printers have only a small amount of memory, called a buffer. This can be easily overloaded. Printing a document also uses a considerable amount of CPU power. This will also slow down the computer's performance.

If the printer is trying to print unusual characters, these might not be recognised, and can crash the computer. Sometimes printers will not recover from a crash because of confusion in the buffer. A good way to clear the buffer is to unplug the printer for ten seconds. Booting up from a powerless state, also called a cold boot, will restore the printer's default settings and you may be able to carry on.

8 Software

A common cause of computer crash is faulty or badly-installed software. Often the problem can be cured by uninstalling the software and then reinstalling it. Use Norton Uninstall or Uninstall Shield to remove an application from your system properly. This will also remove references to the programme in the System Registry and leaves the way clear for a completely fresh copy.

The System Registry can be corrupted by old references to obsolete software that you thought was uninstalled. Use Reg Cleaner by Jouni Vuorio to clean up the System Registry and remove obsolete entries. It works on Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 98 SE (Second Edition), Windows Millennium Edition (ME), NT4 and Windows 2000.

Read the instructions and use it carefully so you don't do permanent damage to the Registry. If the Registry is damaged you will have to reinstall your operating system. Reg Cleaner can be obtained from www.jv16.org

Often a Windows problem can be resolved by entering Safe Mode. This can be done during start-up. When you see the message "Starting Windows" press F4. This should take you into Safe Mode.

Safe Mode loads a minimum of drivers. It allows you to find and fix problems that prevent Windows from loading properly.

Sometimes installing Windows is difficult because of unsuitable BIOS settings. If you keep getting SUWIN error messages (Windows setup) during the Windows installation, then try entering the BIOS and disabling the CPU internal cache. Try to disable the Level 2 (L2) cache if that doesn't work.

Remember to restore all the BIOS settings back to their former settings following installation.

9 Overheating

Central processing units (CPUs) are usually equipped with fans to keep them cool. If the fan fails or if the CPU gets old it may start to overheat and generate a particular kind of error called a kernel error. This is a common problem in chips that have been overclocked to operate at higher speeds than they are supposed to.

One remedy is to get a bigger better fan and install it on top of the CPU. Specialist cooling fans/heatsinks are available from www.computernerd.com or www.coolit.com

CPU problems can often be fixed by disabling the CPU internal cache in the BIOS. This will make the machine run more slowly, but it should also be more stable.

10 Power supply problems

With all the new construction going on around the country the steady supply of electricity has become disrupted. A power surge or spike can crash a computer as easily as a power cut.

If this has become a nuisance for you then consider buying a uninterrupted power supply (UPS). This will give you a clean power supply when there is electricity, and it will give you a few minutes to perform a controlled shutdown in case of a power cut.

It is a good investment if your data are critical, because a power cut will cause any unsaved data to be lost.

Counterfeiting Money

Before reading this article, it would be a very good idea to get a
book on photo offset printing, for this is the method used in
counterfeiting US currency. If you are familiar with this method
of printing, counterfeiting should be a simple task for you.

Genuine currency is made by a process called "gravure", which
involves etching a metal block. Since etching a metal block is
impossible to do by hand, photo offset printing comes into the
process.

Photo offset printing starts by making negatives of the currency
with a camera, and putting the negatives on a piece of masking
material (usually orange in color). The stripped negatives,
commonly called "flats", are then exposed to a lithographic plate
with an arc light plate maker. The burned plates are then
developed with the proper developing chemical. One at a time,
these plates are wrapped around the plate cylinder of the press.

The press to use should be an 11 by 14 offset, such as the AB Dick
360. Make 2 negatives of the portrait side of the bill, and 1 of
the back side. After developing them and letting them dry, take
them to a light table. Using opaque on one of the portrait sides,
touch out all the green, which is the seal and the serial numbers.
The back side does not require any retouching, because it is all
one color. Now, make sure all of the negatives are registered
(lined up correctly) on the flats. By the way, every time you
need another serial number, shoot 1 negative of the portrait side,
cut out the serial number, and remove the old serial number from
the flat replacing it with the new one.

Now you have all 3 flats, and each represents a different color:
black, and 2 shades of green (the two shades of green are created
by mixing inks). Now you are ready to burn the plates. Take a
lithographic plate and etch three marks on it. These marks must
be 2 and 9/16 inches apart, starting on one of the short edges.
Do the same thing to 2 more plates. Then, take 1 of the flats and
place it on the plate, exactly lining the short edge up with the
edge of the plate. Burn it, move it up to the next mark, and
cover up the exposed area you have already burned. Burn that, and
do the same thing 2 more times, moving the flat up one more mark.
Do the same process with the other 2 flats (each on a separate
plate). Develop all three plates. You should now have 4 images
on each plate with an equal space between each bill.

The paper you will need will not match exactly, but it will do for
most situations. The paper to use should have a 25% rag content.
By the way, Disaperf computer paper (invisible perforation) does
the job well. Take the paper and load it into the press. Be sure
to set the air, buckle, and paper thickness right. Start with the
black plate (the plate without the serial numbers). Wrap it
around the cylinder and load black ink in. Make sure you run more
than you need because there will be a lot of rejects. Then, while
that is printing, mix the inks for the serial numbers and the back
side. You will need to add some white and maybe yellow to the
serial number ink. You also need to add black to the back side.
Experiment until you get it right. Now, clean the press and print
the other side. You will now have a bill with no green seal or
serial numbers. Print a few with one serial number, make another
and repeat. Keep doing this until you have as many different
numbers as you want. Then cut the bills to the exact size with a
paper cutter. You should have printed a large amount of money by
now, but there is still one problem; the paper is pure white. To
dye it, mix the following in a pan: 2 cups of hot water, 4 tea
bags, and about 16 to 20 drops of green food coloring (experiment
with this). Dip one of the bills in and compare it to a genuine
US bill. Make the necessary adjustments, and dye all the bills.
Also, it is a good idea to make them look used. For example,
wrinkle them, rub coffee grinds on them, etc.

As before mentioned, unless you are familiar with photo offset
printing, most of the information in this article will be fairly
hard to understand. Along with getting a book on photo offset
printing, try to see the movie "To Live and Die in LA". It is
about a counterfeiter, and the producer does a pretty good job of
showing how to counterfeit. A good book on the subject is "The
Poor Man's James Bond".

If all of this seems too complicated to you, there is one other
method available for counterfeiting: The Canon color laser
copier. The Canon can replicate ANYTHING in vibrant color,
including US currency. But, once again, the main problem in
counterfeiting is the paper used. So, experiment, and good luck!

-= Exodus =-